A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names

A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names

A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I.J.K.L.M.N.O.P.Q.R.S.T.U.V.W.X.Y.Z

This is a concise guide to technical terms and personal names often encountered in the study of philosophy. What you will find here naturally reflects my own philosophical interests and convictions, but everything is meant to be clear, accurate, and fair, a reliable source of information on Western philosophy for a broad audience. The curriculum vitae elsewhere on this site describes my experience in academic life.

Although the entries are often brief, many include links to electronic texts and to more detailed discussions on this site or in other on-line resources, including: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP), Tom Stone’s EpistemeLinks.com (ELC), The Encyclopædia Brittanica Online (EB), The Columbia Encyclopedia (), The Perseus Digital Library(PP), Mathematical MacTutor (MMT), Peter Saint-André’s The Ism Book (ISM), Eric Weisstein’sWorld of Scientific Biography (WSB), Chris Eliasmith’s Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind (DPM), The Catholic Encyclopedia (CE), Kristin Switala’s Feminist Theory Website (FTW), The Fallacy Files from Gary N. Curtis (FF), and Stephen Downes’s Guide to the Logical Fallacies (GLF). Links to these and other resources listed in the “Also see . . . ” list at the end of a dictionary entry—along with references to on-line texts—will appear in a second browser window.

For convenient access to the work of many Internet lexicographers, see: Bob Ware’s OneLook Dictionaries, Robert Beard’s yourDictionary.com, and Vocabulary.com. For additional discussion of philosophers, the issues they discuss, and the terms they use, consult other philosophy sites, especially Andrew Chrucky’s Meta-Encyclopedia of Philosophy and Harmut Krech’s Bio-Bibliographical Directory.

A” proposition
abandonment
abduction
Peter Abelard
the Absolute
absolutism
Absorption (Abs.)
abstraction
absurd
Abunaser
Academy
accent fallacy
accident
accident fallacy
act / rule utilitarianism
action theory
actuality / potentiality
Jane Addams
Addition (Add.)
ad hominem argument
αδιαφορα [adiaphora]
Alfred Adler
Theodor Adorno
aesthetics
affirmative conclusion
affirmative proposition
affirming the alternative
affirming the consequent
a fortiori
agent
agnosticism
Method of Agreement
αισθησις [aisthêsis]
αιτιον [aition]
ακρασια [akrásia]
Albert the Great
αληθεια [alêtheia]
Samuel Alexander
Algazel
algorithm
alienation
Alpharabius
alternation
alternative occurrence
Louis Althusser
altruism
ambiguity
amoral
amphiboly
analogy
analysis
analytic / synthetic
analytic philosophy
αναμνησις [anámnêsis]
αναγκη [anankê]
anarchism
Anaxagoras
Anaximander
Anaximenes
ancestral
ανδρεια [andreia]
Angst
anima
animals
animal rights
animism
anomalous monism
G.E.M. Anscombe

Anselm
Life and Works
. . Ontological Argument
Bibliography
Internet Sources

antecedent
Susan B. Anthony
anthropic principle
anthropomorphism
antinomy
Antisthenes
antithesis
anxiety
απειρων [apeirôn]
apodeictic
απορια [aporia]
a posteriori
appearance / reality
apperception
Kwame Anthony Appiah
applied ethics
a priori / a posteriori

Aquinas
Life and Works
. . Faith & Reason
. . Five Ways
. . Metaphysics
Bibliography
Internet Sources

αρχη [archê]
Archimedes
Hannah Arendt
Αρης [Ares]
αρετη [aretê]
argument
argument form
argumentum ad . . .
Aristippus
aristocracy
Aristotelian logic
Aristotelianism

Aristotle
Life and Works
. . Logic
. . Demonstration
. . Four Causes
. . Metaphysics
. . Universals
. . Knowledge
. . Virtue
. . Volition
. . Friendship
. . Politics
. . Poetics
Bibliography
Internet Sources

arithmetic
D.M. Armstrong
Antoine Arnauld
Kenneth Arrow
artificial intelligence
asceticism
assent
assertion
assertoric
Association (Assoc.)
association of ideas
assumption
Mary Astell
αταραξια [ataraxia]
atheism
atomism
attribute
Aufklärung

Augustine
Life and Works
. . Platonism
. . Human Nature
. . God
. . Freedom
Bibliography
Internet Sources

John Austin

Austin
Life and Works
. . Ordinary Language
. . Speech Acts
Bibliography
Internet Sources

authenticity
appeal to authority
autonomy / heteronomy
Averroës
Avicebron
Avicenna
axiology
axiom
A. J. Ayer

 

Charles Babbage
Gaston Bachelard
Francis Bacon
Roger Bacon
arg. ad baculum
bad faith
Annette Baier
Kurt Baier
Mikhail Bakunin
“Barbara”
“Baroco”
Thomas Bayes

Bayle
Life and Works
. . Skepticism
Bibliography
Internet Sources

beauty

de Beauvoir
Life and Works
Bibliography
Internet Sources

Bedeutung

begging the question
Begriff
behaviorism
belief
Jeremy Bentham
Nicolai Berdyaev

Bergmann
Life and Works
Bibliography
Internet Sources

Henri Bergson

Berkeley
Life and Works
. . Abstract Ideas
. . Immaterialism
. . Spirits
. . Common Sense
. . Science
Bibliography
Internet Sources

Isaiah Berlin
best of all possible worlds
Bewußtsein

biconditional
bivalence
Brand Blanshard
“Bocardo”
Boethius
Boetius of Dacia
Niels Bohr
Bernard Bolzano
Bonaventure
George Boole
Susan Bordo
Bernard Bosanquet
the Boundless
Robert Boyle
F. H. Bradley
Franz Brentano
C. D. Broad
Giordano Bruno
Martin Buber
bundle theory
Jean Buridan
Edmund Burke
Joseph Butler

 

Edward Caird
Cambridge Platonists
“Camenes”
“Camestres”
Albert Camus
Georg Cantor
Rudolf Carnap
Carneades
Lewis Carroll
Cartesianism
Ernst Cassirer
casuistry
categorical imperative
categorical logic
categorical proposition
categorical syllogism
categorical term
category
category mistake
catharsis
cause / effect
the four causes
Margaret Cavendish
“Celarent”
“Cesare”
chain of being
Pierre Charron
Roderick Chisholm
Noam Chomsky
Chrysippus
Alonzo Church
Cicero
circularity
Hélène Cixous
Samuel Clarke
class
clear and distinct
W. K. Clifford
Catherine Cockburn
cogito ergo sum
cognition
cognitive science
coherence theory
R.G. Collingwood
communism
Commutation (Comm.)
compatibilism
complement
completeness
complex question
composition fallacy
Auguste Comte
concept
conceptualism
conclusion
Concomitant Variation
Étienne de Condillac
conditional
confirmation
conjunction
Conjunction (Conj.)
connective
connotation
conscience
consciousness
consequent
consequentialism
consistency
constant
Constr. Dilemma (C.D.)
continence/incontinence
contingent
contradiction
contradictories
contraposition
contraries
conventionalism
converse accident
conversion
converting conditional
Anne Conway
Nicolas Copernicus
Géraud de Cordemoy
corpuscularianism
correspondence theory
cosmological argument
counter-example
counterfactual
courage
Hasdai Crescas
criterion
critical theory
Benedetto Croce
Ralph Cudworth
Richard Cumberland
Nicolas of Cusa
cynicism

 

Jean d’Alembert
Mary Daly
“Darii”
Charles Darwin
Dasein
“Datisi”
Donald Davidson
Dorothy Day
decision procedure
deconstruction
Richard Dedekind
de dicto / de re
deduction / induction
de facto / de jure
definite description
definition
deism
de jure
Gilles Deleuze
Democritus
Augustus De Morgan
De Morgan’s Th. (DeM.)
Daniel Dennett
denotation / connotation
denying the antecedent
deontology
de re
Jacques Derrida
Descartes
Life and Works
. . Method
. . Animals
. . Doubt
. . Cogito
. . God
. . Error
. . Extension
. . Dualism
. . Cartesianism
Bibliography
Internet Sources

descriptive ethics
argument from design
determinable/determinate
determinism

Dewey
Life and Works
. . Knowledge
. . Morality
Bibliography
Internet Sources

Baron d’Holbach
dialectic
dialectical materialism
διανοια [diánoia]
Denis Diderot

Method of Difference
δικη [díkê]
dilemma
Wilhelm Dilthey
“Dimaris”
Ding an sich
Diogenes
direct realism
directive use of language
“Disamis”
disjunction
Disjunctive Syll. (D.S.)
disposition
distribution of terms
Distribution (Dist.)
division fallacy
double aspect theory
Double Negation
method of doubt
δοξα [dóxa]
mind-body dualism
W.E.B. Dubois
Pierre Duhem
Michael Dummett
δυναμις [dynamis]
Émile Durkheim
duties
Ronald Dworkin

 

“E” proposition
Meister Eckhart
Umberto Eco
ecofeminism
effect
efficient cause
egoism
ειδος [eidos]
εικασια [eikásia]
Albert Einstein
Eleatics
eliminativism
Elizabeth of Bohemia
emanation
emergent property
Ralph Waldo Emerson
appeal to emotion
emotive meaning
emotivism
Empedocles
empirical
empiricism
Encyclopedists
end
ενεργεια [energeia]
Friedrich Engels
Enlightenment
entailment
Entäusserung
εντελεχια [entelecheia]
enthusiasm
enthymeme

Epictetus
Life and Works
. . Stoicism
Bibliography
Internet Sources

 

Epicurus
Life and Works
. . Epicureanism
Bibliography
Internet Sources

epiphenomenalism
επιστημη [epistêmê]
epistemology
εποχη [epochê]
equivalence
Equivalence (Equiv.)
equivocal
equivocation
Desiderius Erasmus
Eratosthenes
Erfahrung
John Scotus Erigena
Erlebnis

ερος [eros]
esse est percipi
essence / accident
estrangement
eternal return
ethics
εθος [ethos]
Euclid
eudaemonism
Leonhard Euler
evidence
problem of evil
excluded middle
exclusive premises
existence
existential fallacy
Existential Generalization
existential import
Existential Instantiation
existentialism
expected value
explanation
Exportation (Exp.)
expressive use of language
extension
extension / intension
extensionality
extrinsic
fact / value
facticity
fallacy
fallibilism
false cause
falsifiability
al-Farabi
fatalism
Herbert Feigl
feminism
“Ferio”
“Ferison”
Pierre de Fermat
“Festino”
Ludwig Feuerbach
Paul Feyerabend
Richard Feynman
Fibonacci
Johann Fichte
Marsillio Ficino
fideism
figure
Robert Filmer
final cause
five ways
appeal to force
formal cause
formal fallacy
Platonic Forms
Michel Foucault
Simon Foucher
four terms fallacy
Joseph Fourier
Frankfurt school
freedom
Gottlob Frege
“Fresison”
Sigmund Freud
Margaret Fuller
functionalism
fuzzy logic

 

H.-G. Gadamer
Galileo Galilei
Mahatma Gandhi
Pierre Gassendi
C. F. Gauss
John Gay
Gemeinschaft/Gesellschaft
gender / sex
general will
genus and differentia
Gersonides
Edmund Gettier
Arnold Geulincx
al-Ghazali
Carol Gilligan
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Joseph Glanvill
Glück
γνωσις [gnôsis]
existence of god
Kurt Gödel
William Godwin
Emma Goldman
good
Nelson Goodman
Antonio Gramsci
greatest happiness
T.H. Green
Paul Grice
Robert Grosseteste
Hugo Grotius
grue

 

Jürgen Habermas
haecceity
William Hamilton
Stuart Hampshire
happiness
Donna Haraway
Sandra Harding
R.M. Hare
H.L.A. Hart
David Hartley
Nicolai Hartmann
Friedrich Hayek
hedonism

Hegel
Life and Works
. . Dialectic
. . Subjective
. . Objective
. . Absolute
Bibliography
Internet Sources

 

Heidegger
Life and Works
. . Nothing
. . Being-There
. . Metaphysics
Bibliography
Internet Sources
Werner Heisenberg
Virginia Held
Helvetius
Carl Hempel
Heraclitus
Herbert of Cherbury
hermeneutics
heteronomy
heterological
heuristic
David Hilbert
Hippias
historicism
Sarah Lucia Hoagland

Hobbes
Life and Works
. . Human Nature
. . Society
Bibliography
Internet Sources

Douglas Hofstadter
homological / heterological
homonymous
bell hooks

Grace Hopper
Max Horkheimer
Karen Horney
‘υλη [hylê]
humanism

Hume
Life and Works
. . Ideas
. . Belief
. . Cause & Effect
. . The Self
. . Skepticism
. . Morality
. . Religion
Bibliography
Internet Sources

Edmund Husserl
Francis Hutcheson
hylomorphic
Hypatia
hypostasization
hypothesis
hypothetical imperative
Hypothetical Syll.(H.S.)

 

“I” proposition
Ibn Daud
Ibn Gabirol
Ibn Rushd
Ibn Sina
idea
idealism
identity
identity theory
appeal to ignorance
arg. ad ignoratiam
ignoratio elenchi
illicit major
illicit minor
illocutionary act
imagination
immediate inference
impartiality
implication
Implication (Impl.)
incommensurability
incontinence
incorrigible
indexical
indirect proof
individual constant
individual variable
indubitable
induction
ineffable
inference
rules of inference
infinite regress
informal fallacy
informative use of language
Roman Ingarden
ingenium
innate ideas
instrumentalism
intension
intentionality
interactionism
intertextuality
intrinsic / extrinsic
intuition
intuitionism
invalid
Luce Irigaray
irony
irrelevant conclusion
“-ism”

 

James
Life and Works
. . Psychology
. . Meaning
. . Truth
. . Religion
Bibliography
Internet Sources

Jansenism

Karl Jaspers
Thomas Jefferson
Joint Method
joint occurrence
judgment
C. G. Jung
just war theory
justice
justification

 

Kant
Life and Works
. . Critical Philosophy
. . Analytic / Synthetic
. . Mathematics
. . Natural Science
. . Experience & Reality
. . Phenomena / Noumena
. . Metaphysical Ideas
. . Limits of Reason
. . The Moral Law
. . Categorical Imperative
. . Autonomy of the Will
. . Third Critique
Bibliography
Internet Sources
Hans Kelsen
Garth Kemerling
Johannes Kepler
John Maynard Keynes

Kierkegaard
Life and Works
. . The Individual
. . Freedom & Dread
. . Subjective Truth
Bibliography
Internet Sources
Jaegwon Kim
al-Kindi
κινησις [kinêsis]
Martin Luther King, Jr.
knowledge
knowledge by acquaintance /
knowledge by description

theoretical knowledge
Saul Kripke
Julia Kristeva
Queen Kristina
Thomas Kuhn

 

Jacques Lacan
laissez-faire
Imre Lakatos
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Julien La Mettrie
Susanne Langer
P. S. de Laplace
Michèle Le Dœuff
legal positivism
Keith Lehrer

Leibniz
Life and Works
. . Logic & Truth
. . Individual Substances
. . Sufficient Reason
. . Space & Time
. . Best of All Possible
. . Freedom
Bibliography
Internet Sources

V. I. Lenin

G. E. Lessing
Leucippus
C. I. Lewis
lexical definition
lex talionis
liar paradox
libertas
N.I. Lobachevsky

Locke
Life and Works
. . Empiricism
. . Qualities
. . Liberty
. . Substance
. . Identity
. . Words
. . Knowledge
. . Property
. . Government
Bibliography
Internet Sources
locutionary act
logic
modal logic
logical form
logical positivism
logicization of arithmetic
λογος / μυθος [logos/mythos]
Peter Lombard
Konrad Lorenz
Rudolf Hermann Lotze
A.O. Lovejoy
Lucretius
Gyorgy Lukacs
Jan Lukasiewicz
Rosa Luxemburg
J.-F. Lyotard

 

Ernst Mach

Machiavelli
Life and Works
. . The Prince
. . Leadership
Bibliography
Internet Sources

 

MacKinnon
Life and Works
Bibliography
Internet Sources

J.M.E. McTaggart
magnanimity
Moses Maimonides
major premise
major term
Nicolas Malebranche
Thomas Malthus
Benoit Mandelbrot
Bernard Mandeville
Manichaeanism
Mao Zedong
Gabriel Marcel
Marcus Aurelius
Herbert Marcuse
Jacques Maritain
Marsilius of Padua

Marx
Life and Works
. . Alienation
. . Communism
. . Economics
Bibliography
Internet Sources

Damaris Masham
material cause

material equivalence
material implication
materialism
matter
mauvaise foi
maximin principle
George Herbert Mead
mean
meaning
mechanism
μεγαλοψυχι&alpha [megalopsychia]
Alexius Meinong
meme
memory
Gregor Mendel
Moses Mendelssohn
mens
mention
Maurice Merleau-Ponty
Marin Mersenne
μεσος [mesos]
meta-ethics
metanarrative
metaphilosophy
metaphysics
microcosm
middle term
Mary Midgley
Milesians
James Mill

Mill
Life and Works
. . Utilitarianism
. . Individual Liberty
. . Women’s Rights
Bibliography
Internet Sources
Mill’s Methods
μιμησις [mimêsis]
mind
mind-body problem
minor premise
minor term
Marvin Minsky
arg. ad misericordiam
moderation
Modus Ponens (M.P.)
Modus Tollens (M.T.)
monad
monism
Michel de Montaigne
Baron de la Montesquieu
mood and figure

Moore
Life and Works
. . Against Idealism
. . Common Sense
. . Indefinable Good
Bibliography
Internet Sources

moral / non-moral
moral argument
moral sense
Henry More
Thomas More
μορφη [morphê]
μυθος [mythos]
mysticism

 

Ernest Nagel
Thomas Nagel
natural law theory
naturalism
naturalistic fallacy
necessary / contingent
necessary / sufficient
negating the ant. and con.
negation
negative proposition
νεικος [neikos]
neoplatonism
neo-Thomism
Otto Neurath
neutral monism
Isaac Newton
Pierre Nicole

Nietzsche
Life and Works
. . Transvaluation
. . Slave Morality
Bibliography
Internet Sources

Nihil in intellectu…

nihilism
Nel Noddings
νοησις [nóêsis]
nominalism
non sequitur
noncognitivism
normative ethics
John Norris
noumena
νους [nous]
Robert Nozick
Martha Nussbaum

 

“O” proposition
objective / subjective
obligation
obscurum per obscurius
obversion
occasionalism
William of Ockham
oligarchy
ontological argument
ontology
open question
operationalism
opinion
optimism
José Ortega y Gasset
ostension
Rudolf Otto
ουσια [ousia]
pacifism
Thomas Paine
William Paley
panpsychism
pantheism
Paracelsus
paradigm
paradox
parallelism
Vilfredo Pareto
Parmenides
paronymous
law of parsimony
particular prop.
Blaise Pascal
patriarchy
Giuseppe Peano

Peirce
Life and Works
. . Belief
. . Reality
. . Pragmatism
Bibliography
Internet Sources

perception
perceptual illusion
perfectibility
performative utterance
Peripatetics
perlocutionary act
Ralph Barton Perry
per se / per accidens
person
personal identity
persuasive definition
pessimism
petitio principii
phenomenalism

phenomenology
phenomenon
φιλια [philia]
Philo Judaeus
philosophy
φρνησις [phrónêsis]
physicalism
φυσις [physis]
Pico della Mirandola
πιστις [pístis]
appeal to pity
Max Planck

Plato
Life and Works
. . Socratic method
. . Knowing Virtue
. . Soul & Form
. . Justice
. . Social Life
. . Specific Virtues
. . Good Rulers
. . Knowledge
. . Value of Justice
. . Love
Bibliography
Internet Sources

principle of plenitude
Plotinus
pluralism
πνευμα [pneuma]
ποιησις [poiêsis]
Jules Henri Poincare
Polish notation
politics
George Polya
Karl Popper
arg. ad populum
Porphyry

Port-Royal
positivism
post hoc fallacy
postmodernism
postulate
potentiality
pragmatic theory
pragmatism
πραξις [praxis]
precising definition
predicate calculus
predicate constant
prediction
premise
prescriptivism
presocratic philosophers
presupposition
H.H. Price
Richard Price
H.A. Prichard
prima facie
primary / secondary qual.
Pringle-Pattison, Seth
private language
probability
problematic judgment
proof
proposition
propositional calculus
Protagoras
P.-J. Proudhon
prudence
ψυχη [psychê]
Samuel Pufendorf
punishment
Hilary Putnam
Pyrrho of Elis
Pythagoras

 

Q.E.D.
qualia
qualities
propositional quality
quantification rules
quantification theory
quantifiers
propositional quantity
quantum mechanics
quaternio terminorum

Quine
Life and Works
. . “Two Dogmas”
Bibliography
Internet Sources

 

Frank Ramsey
Petrus Ramus
Ayn Rand
rationalism
John Rawls
realism
perceptual realism
reality
reason
recollection
recursive
reductio ad absurdum
reductionism
redundancy theory
reference
Tom Regan
Pierre Régis
Hans Reichenbach
Thomas Reid
reification
relativism
Renaissance
replacement rules
representationalism
res cogitans/extensa
Method of Residues
responsibility
Paul Ricouer
Bernhard Riemann
rights
rigid designator
David George Ritchie
Jacques Rohault
Richard Rorty
W.D. Ross

Rousseau
Life and Works
. . Inequality
. . Social Contract
. . General Will
Bibliography
Internet Sources
Josiah Royce
Sara Ruddick
rule utilitarianism

Russell
Life and Works
. . Mathematics
. . Descriptions
. . Logical Atomism
. . Social Concerns
Bibliography
Internet Sources

 

Ryle
Life and Works
. . Methods
. . Concept of Mind
Bibliography
Internet Sources

 

Gaon Saadiah
Comte de Saint-Simon
salva veritate
moral sanction
George Santayana

Sartre
Life and Works
. . Freedom
. . Responsibility
. . Self-Deception
. . Despair
Bibliography
Internet Sources

Satyagraha
Ferdinand de Saussure
F.W.J. von Schelling
Friedrich Schiller
Friedrich Schleiermacher
Moritz Schlick
scholasticism
Arthur Schopenhauer
Erwin Schrödinger
scientia
scientific method
John Duns Scotus
John Searle
secondary qualities
secundum quid
self-deception
self-evident
Wilfrid Sellars
semantic theory
semantics
semiotics
Seneca
sensation
sense / reference
sense data
Seth Pringle-Pattison
Sextus Empiricus
Shaftesbury
Sheffer stroke
Henry Sidgwick

Siger of Brabant
simpliciter
Simplification (Simp.)
sine qua non
Peter Singer
singular proposition
Sinn / Bedeutung
skepticism
B.F. Skinner
J.J.C. Smart
Adam Smith
social contract

Socrates
Life and Teachings
. . Defining Piety
. . Methods / Aims
. . Civil Obedience
. . Knowing Virtue
Bibliography
Internet Sources

solipsism
σοφια [sophía]
sophism
sophists
σωφρσυνη [sophrosúnê]
sorites
soul
sound / unsound
Madeleine de Souvré
speech acts
Herbert Spencer

Spinoza
Life and Works
. . Method
. . Metaphysics
. . God / Nature
. . Mind and Body
. . Human Nature
. . Epistemology
. . Freedom
Bibliography
Internet Sources
square of opposition
Madame de Staël
standard form
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
statement
statement constant
statement form
statement variable
C.L. Stevenson
Dugald Stewart
stipulative definition
stoicism
P.F. Strawson
structuralism
Francisco Suarez
subalternation
subcontraries
subjective
sublime
sub specie aeternitatis
substance
substitution-instance
sufficient condition
sui generis
summum bonum
supererogatory
supervenient
syllogism
symbolic logic
logical symbols
syncategorematic
synderesis
synonymous
syntactics
synthesis
synthetic

 

Alfred Tarski
tautology
Tautology (Taut.)
Harriet Taylor
τεχνη [technê]
teleological argument
τελος [télos]
Teresa of Avila
terminus a quo/ad quem
Thales
theism
theodicy
theoretical definition
thesis /antithesis / synthesis
thing-in-itself
Thomas Aquinas
Judith Jarvis Thomson
H.D. Thoreau
Paul Tillich
time
τιμη [timê]
time travel
Timon of Philius
token
John Toland
transcendental argument
Transposition (Trans.)
Hegelian triad
Leon Trotsky
truth
truth-functional
truth-table
Sojourner Truth
τυχη [tychê]
tu quoque
Alan Turing
type / token
types, theory of

 

Übermensch
Miguel de Unamuno
unconscious
underdetermination
understanding
undistributed middle
uniformity of nature
Universal Generalization
Universal Instantiation
universal proposition
problem of universals
universalizability
univocal / equivocal
Ursache
Urteil
use / mention
utilitarianism

 

vagueness
Hans Vaihinger
valid / invalid
Lorenzo Valla
value
variable
Thorsten Veblen
John Venn
Venn diagrams
verbal dispute
arg. ad verecundiam
verifiability principle
veritas
Vernunft
Verstehen
Giambattista Vico
Vienna Circle
virtue
virtue ethics
volition
volonté générale
Voltaire
voluntarism
voluntary / involuntary
John von Neumann
voting paradox

 

Wahrheit
Friedrich Waismann
J. B. Watson
weakness of will
Max Weber
Simone Weil
well-formed formula
Weltanschauung
Wert
Cornel West
Richard Whately
William Whewell
Alfred North Whitehead
Wiener Kreis
will
Edward O. Wilson
John Cook Wilson
Wirklichkeit
Wirkung
wisdom
John Wisdom
Wissen
Wittgenstein
Life and Works
. . Picture Theory
. . Fact and Value
. . New Methods
. . Language Games
. . Private Language
Bibliography
Internet Sources

Christian Wolff

Wollstonecraft
Life and Works
Bibliography
Internet Sources

 

Xenocrates
Xenophanes
Xenophon

 

 

 

Zeit
Zeno of Citium
Zeno of Elea
Ernest Zermelo
zombie

 

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