References

References

  1. Jump up^ Sean Carroll, Ph.D., Cal Tech, 2007, The Teaching Company, Dark Matter, Dark Energy: The Dark Side of the Universe, Guidebook Part 2 page 59, Accessed Oct. 7, 2013, “…The idea that the elementary constituents of matter are small loops of string rather than pointlike particles … we think of string theory as a candidate theory of quantum gravity…”
  2. Jump up^ Klebanov, Igor and Maldacena, Juan (2009). “Solving Quantum Field Theories via Curved Spacetimes”(PDF). Physics Today 62: 28. Bibcode:2009PhT….62a..28Kdoi:10.1063/1.3074260. Retrieved May 2013.
  3. Jump up^ http://superstringtheory.com/history/history4.html
  4. Jump up^ Schwarz, John H. (1999). “From Superstrings to M Theory”. Physics Reports 315: 107. arXiv:hep-th/9807135Bibcode:1999PhR…315..107Sdoi:10.1016/S0370-1573(99)00016-2.
  5. Jump up^ Hawking, Stephen (2010). The Grand Design. Bantam Books. ISBN 055338466X.
  6. Jump up^ Woit, Peter (2006). Not Even Wrong: The Failure of String Theory and the Search for Unity in Physical Law. London: Jonathan Cape &: New York: Basic Books. p. 174. ISBN 0-465-09275-6.
  7. Jump up^ P.C.W Davies and J. Brown (ed), “Superstrings, A Theory of Everything?”, Cambridge University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-521-35741-1.
  8. Jump up^ Penrose, Roger (2005). The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-45443-8.
  9. Jump up^ Sheldon Glashow. “NOVA – The elegant Universe”. Pbs.org. Retrieved on 2012-07-11.
  10. Jump up^ Moore, Gregory (2005). “What is… a Brane?” (PDF). Notices of the AMS 52: 214. Retrieved June 2013.
  11. Jump up^ Aspinwall, Paul; Bridgeland, Tom; Craw, Alastair; Douglas, Michael; Gross, Mark; Kapustin, Anton; Moore, Gregory; Segal, Graeme; Szendröi, Balázs; Wilson, P.M.H., eds. (2009). Dirichlet Branes and Mirror Symmetry. American Mathematical Society.
  12. Jump up^ Duality in string theory in nLab
  13. Jump up^ Witten, Edward (1995). “String theory dynamics in various dimensions”. Nuclear Physics B 443 (1): 85–126.arXiv:hep-th/9503124Bibcode:1995NuPhB.443…85Wdoi:10.1016/0550-3213(95)00158-O.
  14. Jump up^ Hellerman, Simeon; Swanson, Ian (2007). “Dimension-changing exact solutions of string theory”. Journal of High Energy Physics 2007 (9): 096. arXiv:hep-th/0612051v3Bibcode:2007JHEP…09..096H.doi:10.1088/1126-6708/2007/09/096.
  15. Jump up^ Aharony, Ofer; Silverstein, Eva (2007). “Supercritical stability, transitions, and (pseudo)tachyons”. Physical Review D 75 (4). arXiv:hep-th/0612031v2Bibcode:2007PhRvD..75d6003A.doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.75.046003.
  16. Jump up^ Duff, M. J.; Liu, James T. and Minasian, R. (1995). “Eleven Dimensional Origin of String/String Duality: A One Loop Test”. Nuclear Physics B 452: 261. arXiv:hep-th/9506126v2Bibcode:1995NuPhB.452..261D.doi:10.1016/0550-3213(95)00368-3.
  17. Jump up^ Polchinski, Joseph (1998). String Theory, Cambridge University Press ISBN 0521672295.
  18. Jump up^ The calculation of the number of dimensions can be circumvented by adding a degree of freedom, which compensates for the “missing” quantum fluctuations. However, this degree of freedom behaves similar tospacetime dimensions only in some aspects, and the produced theory is not Lorentz invariant, and has other characteristics that do not appear in nature. This is known as the linear dilaton or non-critical string.
  19. Jump up^ Botelho, Luiz C. L. and Botelho, Raimundo C. L. (1999) “Quantum Geometry of Bosonic Strings – Revisited”. Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas.
  20. Jump up^ Hübsch, T. (1997). “A Hitchhiker’s Guide to Superstring Jump Gates and Other Worlds”Nuclear Physics B – Proceedings Supplements 52: 347. Bibcode:1997NuPhS..52..347Hdoi:10.1016/S0920-5632(96)00589-0.
  21. Jump up^ Randall, Lisa (1999). “An Alternative to Compactification”. Physical Review Letters 83 (23): 4690. arXiv:hep-th/9906064Bibcode:1999PhRvL..83.4690Rdoi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.4690.
  22. Jump up^ Aspinwall, Paul S.; Greene, Brian R.; Morrison, David R. (1994). “Calabi-Yau moduli space, mirror manifolds and spacetime topology change in string theory”. Nuclear Physics B 416 (2): 414. arXiv:hep-th/9309097.Bibcode:1994NuPhB.416..414Adoi:10.1016/0550-3213(94)90321-2.
  23. Jump up to:a b c Kachru, Shamit; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Trivedi, Sandip (2003). “De Sitter vacua in string theory”. Physical Review D 68 (4). arXiv:hep-th/0301240Bibcode:2003PhRvD..68d6005K.doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.68.046005.
  24. Jump up^ Freivogel, Ben; Kleban, Matthew; Martínez, María Rodríguez; Susskind, Leonard (2006). “Observational consequences of a landscape”. Journal of High Energy Physics 2006 (3): 039. arXiv:hep-th/0505232.Bibcode:2006JHEP…03..039Fdoi:10.1088/1126-6708/2006/03/039.
  25. Jump up^ Kleban, Matthew; Levi, Thomas S.; Sigurdson, Kris (2013). “Observing the multiverse with cosmic wakes”.Physical Review D 87 (4). arXiv:1109.3473Bibcode:2013PhRvD..87d1301K.doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.87.041301.
  26. Jump up^ Polchinski, Joseph (2004). “Introduction to Cosmic F- and D-Strings”. arXiv:hep-th/0412244 [hep-th].
  27. Jump up^ Maldacena, J. The Large N Limit of Superconformal Field Theories and SupergravityarXiv:hep-th/9711200
  28. Jump up^ Gubser, S. S.; Klebanov, I. R. and Polyakov, A. M. (1998). “Gauge theory correlators from non-critical string theory”. Physics Letters B428: 105–114. arXiv:hep-th/9802109Bibcode:1998PhLB..428..105G.doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(98)00377-3.
  29. Jump up^ Edward Witten (1998). “Anti-de Sitter space and holography”. Advances in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics 2: 253–291. arXiv:hep-th/9802150Bibcode:1998hep.th….2150W.
  30. Jump up^ Aharony, O.; S.S. Gubser, J. Maldacena, H. Ooguri, Y. Oz (2000). “Large N Field Theories, String Theory and Gravity”. Phys. Rept. 323 (3–4): 183–386. arXiv:hep-th/9905111Bibcode:1999PhR…323..183A.doi:10.1016/S0370-1573(99)00083-6.
  31. Jump up^ Aharony, Ofer; Bergman, Oren; Jafferis, Daniel Louis; Maldacena, Juan (2008). “N = 6 superconformal Chern-Simons-matter theories, M2-branes and their gravity duals”. Journal of High Energy Physics 2008 (10): 091. arXiv:0806.1218Bibcode:2008JHEP…10..091Adoi:10.1088/1126-6708/2008/10/091.
  32. Jump up^ 6d (2,0)-supersymmetric QFT in nLab
  33. Jump up^ Kovtun, P. K.; Son, Dam T.; Starinets, A. O. (2001). “Viscosity in strongly interacting quantum field theories from black hole physics”. Physical review letters 94 (11).
  34. Jump up^ Luzum, Matthew; Romatschke, Paul (2008). “Conformal relativistic viscous hydrodynamics: Applications to RHIC results at sqrt [s_ {NN}]= 200 GeV”. Physical Review C 78 (3). arXiv:0804.4015.Bibcode:2008PhRvC..78c4915Ldoi:10.1103/PhysRevC.78.034915.
  35. Jump up^ Merali, Zeeya (2011). “Collaborative physics: string theory finds a bench mate”. Nature 478 (7369): 302–304.Bibcode:2011Natur.478..302Mdoi:10.1038/478302aPMID 22012369.
  36. Jump up^ Sachdev, Subir (2013). “Strange and stringy”. Scientific American 308 (44): 44.Bibcode:2012SciAm.308a..44Sdoi:10.1038/scientificamerican0113-44.
  37. Jump up^ Deligne, Pierre; Etingof, Pavel; Freed, Daniel; Jeffery, Lisa; Kazhdan, David; Morgan, John; Morrison, David; Witten, Edward, eds. (1999). Quantum Fields and Strings: A Course for Mathematicians 1. American Mathematical Society. p. 1. ISBN 0821820125.
  38. Jump up^ Hori, Kentaro; Katz, Sheldon; Klemm, Albrecht; Pandharipande, Rahul; Thomas, Richard; Vafa, Cumrun; Vakil, Ravi; Zaslow, Eric, eds. (2003). Mirror Symmetry. American Mathematical Society.ISBN 0821829556.
  39. Jump up^ Frenkel, Igor; Lepowsky, James; Meurman, Arne (1988). Vertex operator algebras and the Monster. Pure and Applied Mathematics 134. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-267065-5.
  40. Jump up to:a bhttp://www.hs.fi/tiede/Suomalaistutkija+kilpaili+Einsteinin+kanssa+ja+keksi+viidennen+ulottuvuuden/a1410754065152
  41. Jump up^ Dolen, R.; Horn, D.; Schmid, C. (1968). “Finite-Energy Sum Rules and Their Application to πN Charge Exchange”. Physical Review 166 (5): 1768. Bibcode:1968PhRv..166.1768D.doi:10.1103/PhysRev.166.1768.
  42. Jump up^ Banks, T.; Fischler, W.; Shenker, S. H.; Susskind, L. (1997). “M theory as a matrix model: A conjecture”.Physical Review D 55 (8): 5112. arXiv:hep-th/9610043v3Bibcode:1997PhRvD..55.5112B.doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.55.5112.
  43. Jump up^ Woit, Peter Not Even Wrong. Math.columbia.edu. Retrieved on 2012-07-11.
  44. Jump up^ Smolin, Lee. The Trouble With Physics. Thetroublewithphysics.com. Retrieved on 2012-07-11.
  45. Jump up^ The n-Category Cafe. Golem.ph.utexas.edu (2007-02-25). Retrieved on 2012-07-11.
  46. Jump up^ John Baez weblog. Math.ucr.edu (2007-02-25). Retrieved on 2012-07-11.
  47. Jump up^ Woit, P. (Columbia University), String theory: An Evaluation, February 2001, arXiv:physics/0102051
  48. Jump up^ Woit, P. Is String Theory Testable? INFN Rome March 2007
  49. Jump up^ God (or Not), Physics and, of Course, Love: Scientists Take a LeapNew York Times, 4 January 2005: “String theory is the first science in hundreds of years to be pursued in pre-Baconian fashion, without any adequate experimental guidance”
  50. Jump up^ “there ain’t no experiment that could be done nor is there any observation that could be made that would say, `You guys are wrong.’ The theory is safe, permanently safe” NOVA interview
  51. Jump up^ Krauss, Lawrence (8 November 2005) Science and Religion Share Fascination in Things UnseenNew York Times: “String theory [is] yet to have any real successes in explaining or predicting anything measurable”.
  52. Jump up^ Rovelli, Carlo (2003). “A Dialog on Quantum Gravity”. International Journal of Modern Physics D [Gravitation; Astrophysics and Cosmology] 12 (9): 1509. arXiv:hep-th/0310077Bibcode:2003IJMPD..12.1509R.doi:10.1142/S0218271803004304.
  53. Jump up^ Schroer, B. (2008) String theory and the crisis of particle physics II or the ascent of metaphoric arguments,arXiv:0805.1911
  54. Jump up^ Kiritsis, Elias (2007) String Theory in a Nutshell, Princeton University Press, ISBN 1400839335.
  55. Jump up^ Vafa, Cumrun (2005). “The String landscape and the swampland”. arXiv:hep-th/0509212.
  56. Jump up^ Arkani-Hamed, N.; Dimopoulos, S. and Kachru, S. Predictive Landscapes and New Physics at a TeV,arXiv:hep-th/0501082, SLAC-PUB-10928, HUTP-05-A0001, SU-ITP-04-44, January 2005
  57. Jump up^ Susskind, L. The Anthropic Landscape of String TheoryarXiv:hep-th/0302219, February 2003

Further reading

Popular books

General

Critical

Textbooks

For physicists

For mathematicians

  • Aspinwall, Paul; Bridgeland, Tom; Craw, Alastair; Douglas, Michael; Gross, Mark; Kapustin, Anton; Moore, Gregory; Segal, Graeme; Szendröi, Balázs; Wilson, P.M.H., eds. (2009). Dirichlet Branes and Mirror Symmetry. American Mathematical Society.
  • Deligne, Pierre; Etingof, Pavel; Freed, Daniel; Jeffery, Lisa; Kazhdan, David; Morgan, John; Morrison, David; Witten, Edward, eds. (1999). Quantum Fields and Strings: A Course for Mathematicians. American Mathematical Society. ISBN 0821820125.
  • Hori, Kentaro; Katz, Sheldon; Klemm, Albrecht; Pandharipande, Rahul; Thomas, Richard; Vafa, Cumrun; Vakil, Ravi; Zaslow, Eric, eds. (2003). Mirror Symmetry. American Mathematical Society.ISBN 0821829556.

Online material

External links

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